Tea is the second most used drink after water and it is an aromatic beverage that is normally prepared by pouring hot water into tea leaves or tea bags. It also can be prepared by adding some milk and sugar. We love tea as a refreshing drink which makes us feel great and enthusiastic. On the other hand, tea has some health benefits like- burns calories, reduces the risk of heart disease and cancer. Though people all over the world drink tea, Turkey is famous for the most consumed tea-drinking country. This content is all about Tea but we also can get information about the history of tea, tea cultivation and processing, tea industry, tea market, and special types of tea in Bangladesh.
History of Tea
China is a country where tea was drinking for the first time. Tea drinking began in the Yunnan region for medical purposes by boiling tea leaves. People also believed that tea can be used as a stimulating drink. In 2737 BC, tea was innovated by Chinese legend from the southwest of China. During the 17th century, drinking tea becomes popular in Britain. Then the British started tea production and consumption in India to compete for the Chinese monopoly market on tea.
Types of Tea
There are different types of tea in the world and these are-
- Green tea: Green tea has maximum health benefits from all types of tea. It is made from Camellia sinensis leaves and it is a less processed type of tea. The production process of green tea is collecting fresh leaves from the plant then they are steamed, pan-fried, and dried. Green tea was used as a traditional medicine in India and Japan. People normally drink green tea for losing weight. It also helps in reducing the risk of cancer, stroke, heart disease, and diabetes.
- Black tea: Black tea is more oxidized and stronger in flavors than all other tea. Camellia sinensis leaves turn into a dark brownish-black color by using a process called oxidation. It has caffeine and antioxidant. People drink black tea for alertness and energy. Drinking black tea regularly can decrease the risk of Diabetes, High cholesterol, Kidney stones, Parkinson’s disease, Osteoporosis, Cavities (Dental caries). On the other hand, drinking black tea at an extreme level causes health problems like High blood pressure, anxiety and difficulty sleeping, increased urination, irregular heartbeat, etc.
- Oolong tea:
Oolong tea is prepared from the same plant of black and green tea but the process of Oolong tea is different. It is traditional Chinese tea and it is oxidized as between black tea and green tea. Oolong tea helps to prevent diabetes, improve heart health, and lose weight.
- White tea: White tea is a tea that is minimally oxidized and made from young leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. White tea is harvested when the young flowers are still covered by fine white hairs, for this reason, it is called white tea. The process of white tea is collecting leaves then they are steamed or fried to inactivate oxidation, and then dried. White tea is a mild-flavored tea with a soft finish and pale yellow color. There are two types of white such as Silver Needle and White Peony. It is useful for our skin health, Hair health, Oral health, Heart health, etc.
- Instant tea: Instant tea is a powder in which water is added to re-form it into a cup of tea. Instant tea was promoted in the United Kingdom in 1885. It is made by using fresh tea leaves or processed leaves of fermented dried leaves. People normally use instant tea for some benefits like someone can control the flavor and reduce waste of tea, it’s easy to make. Instant tea may be harmful to drinking extreme and it may cause bone pain.
- Post-fermented tea (Dark): Fermented tea is a class of tea that passes through a process of fermentation. Post fermented tea is the kind of tea that is prepared based on the degree of fermentation. When fresh leaves are collected, Processing involves fixation, rolling, and piling. It helps to regulate blood glucose and accelerates digestion.
Tea production in Bangladesh
Bangladesh is the 10th largest tea producer country in the world. Tea is also an important and second export-oriented cash crop of Bangladesh. British rule introduced black tea in Bangladesh in 1840. East India Company introduced tea production in the Sylhet region for the first time in Bangladesh. Then tea cultivation was started in greater Chittagong. Bangladesh has 166 commercial tea gardens covering 279,439 acres of land and is listed as the 9th largest tea producer country in terms of area. Black tea is the most popular tea and the Moulovibazar district is the most tea plantations area in Bangladesh. In recent times, the demand for tea is increasing where the demand rate is 3% but the production of tea is very low where the growth rate of production is 1.23%. Bangladesh has huge possibilities for increasing tea production strategically.
Tea regions of Bangladesh
Tea plantation is suitable in rainy and hilly places and major tea gardens are located in hilly districts of Bangladesh. Sylhet, Habiganj, Moulovibazar which are closer to Assam of India, Chattagram and Panchagarh are the places where tea is cultivating in Bangladesh. There are 8 tea gardens in the Panchagarh area and Halda Valley Tea garden is the highest producing tea garden per hector in Fatikchari, Chittagong.
Processing of tea in Bangladesh
The leaves of tea are processed in the tea factories for producing tea so that suitable people can take it. Black tea is the most popular beverage in Bangladesh. Black tea manufacturing procedure involves the following operations: plucking, withering, processing/rolling, fermentation, drying, sorting, and packaging. The making of high-quality tea depends on the fineness of the plucked tea leaf. Withering is the first step in black tea processing. It involves the removal of moisture from the fresh leaf. The leaf is allowed to dry by using this process. The next step of tea manufacture is rolling. The objective of rolling is to release the natural juices from leaves and it is a kind of initial fermentation. Fermentation is the process of oxidizing green tea. Firing is important for fermented leaves. After firing tea has become dried and then it will be ready for packaging and selling.
Special tea in Bangladesh
Black tea is the tea that is generally taken by a large number of people. People drink black tea regularly but a portion of people loves to drink green tea for health-conscious. Bangladesh is the country where black tea is prepared in various styles. Such as-milk tea is prepared by adding milk in the liquor of black tea. On the other hand, black tea can drink by using different flavors and these are called Masala tea, Lemon tea, Malta tea, Sour and Spice tea, etc. Furthermore, there is a different type of famous tea in Bangladesh and it is Seven Color tea. This seven-color tea is available in a tea shop in Srimongol named Nilkantha Tea Cabin, Moulvibazar. The specialty of this seven-layer tea is, each layer contrasts in different colors and tastes. The ingredients of this tea are-
- Three different black teas
- Green tea
- Condensed milk
Tea is the famous hot beverage of Bangladesh and the demand for tea is increasing day by day. For this reason, Bangladesh cannot export tea in recent times. From this content, we can know the types of tea and special tea in Bangladesh. The nature of Bangladesh is suitable for planting tea. If the production of tea grows by following strategies and using technologies, the demands of tea will be met and exports will increase in the country. This will also help the country’s GDP.